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???????? ??????? ???????? ????? ??? ????? ? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ??? ? ????????? ????? ? ????? ????????? ????? ?????????????? ???????? ??? ? ??????? ??? ??????? ???????????????????? ??????? ????? ????? ????? ??? ? ????? ???????????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??? ?? ?????? ??? ???????? ?????? ? ????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ???? ????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ????? ??????? ????? ???????? ???????? ???? ?????????????? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ?

??? ???? ?? ????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ? ???? ???????? ????????? ???????? ????? ???? ?????? ??????? ? ????????? ???????? ???? ???????? ????????? ????? ? ???????? ???????? ??? ???? ????????? ?????????? ?? ??? ? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?? ??? ? ???? ?? ???????? ???????? ????? ? ??? ???????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ?????? ???? ??? ???? ???????? ???????? ???????? ???? ????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ????????? ????? ???? ? ? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???? ??????? ??????????? (mutation) ????? ?????? ????? ????? ????????????? ????? ????????? ???? ?? ??????? (??? ????–? ??) ???? ? ???? ???????????? ????????????? ????????? (mutation theory) ????? ?

???????? ???? ?????????? ???? ????? ????????????? ?? ???????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ? ???????? ?????? ???? ?????? ???????????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ??? ?? ????? ?? ? ??? ?? ??????? ?????????? ?? ? ????? ??? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ? ???? ??????? ?????? ???? ??????? ????? ??????? ? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ???? ? ???????? ??????? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ? ?? ????? ???? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ???????????? ???? ???? ?????, ????? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ????????? ????? ??????? ? ?? ????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ????? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ??????? ???? ?


?????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ??????????????? ?? ?? ? ?? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ? ?? ????????? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????? ? ??????? ?? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ? ??????????? ????? ??? ??? ???? ?? ?????????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ???? ????? ?? ?


?????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ??????????????? ?? ?? ? ?? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ? ?? ????????? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????? ? ??????? ?? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ? ??????????? ????? ??? ??? ???? ?? ?????????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ???? ????? ?? ? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ???????? ????? ????? ???? ??? ?????? ??????? ??? ? ??, ?????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ??????? ????????? ?????? ????? ?? ??? ??????? ?????? ? ?? ???????? ???????? ??????? ???? ???? ??? ???? ? ???? ???? ??? ??? ? ?? ??????? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ???? ????????? ?????? ????? (SARS) ???????? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ????????? (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) ????? ? ?, ???? ???????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ?????–??? (SARS-CoV) ????? ? ?????–????? ????? ???? ???, ????? ????, ???????, ??????, ??????????, ????????, ??????? ??? ??? ?? ??? ????????? ? ???? ?????????? ????? ???? ? (?????????? : http://who.int/)

?????–?????????? ????? ??????????? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ????????? ? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? (Middle East) ?????? ? ??????? ???? ???????? ???? ???? ???????????? ????????? ?(Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) ??????? ????–??? (MERS-CoV) ???? ??????? ????? ?

????–?????? ?????????, ?????????, ??????, ???, ??????, ???????, ??????, ?????, ????, ?????, ???????????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ? ???? ? ?? ?? ???????? ???????? ?? ??? ???????????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ???? ???? ?) (?????????? : http://who.int)


????????? ??? ??????????? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ???? ??????????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ?????–?????? ??????????? (mutation) ??? ???????? ???? ?? ? ???? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ????? ???? ??????????? ????? ? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ? ??? ???? ?? ????????? ?????? ????? ??? ?????–?? (COVID-19) ??? ??????? ????? ?


????????? ??? ??????????? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ???? ??????????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ?????–?????? ??????????? (mutation) ??? ???????? ???? ?? ? ???? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ????? ???? ??????????? ????? ? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ? ??? ???? ?? ????????? ?????? ????? ??? ?????–?? (COVID-19) ??? ??????? ????? ? ?? (Co) ?? ???? ??????, ?? (Vi) ??? ???? ????? ? ? (D) ?? ???? ????? (???) ?? ? ??? ????? ????? ????????? ????? (????????) ?? ??????? ??? ‘????? ???–?’ ??? ??????? ????? ? ? ?? ??? ???? ?? ????????? ????? ??? ??????? ???? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ?

???? ??????? ???????? ???? ??????

??????????? ? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ???? ????? ???????? ? ???????????? ??????, ?? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????????, ?? ????????? ???? ??? ?????? ? ???????? ????????? ???? ???????????? ???? ???????? ???????? ?????? ???? ?? ? ??????? ????? ??? ???????? ???????? ?????? ????? : ?. ??????????? (Recombination), ? ?. ??????? ??????????? (Random mutation) ?

?. ??????????? (Recombination) :

???????? ?????? ????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ? ????????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ? ??????? ? ???????? ?????? ???? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????? ???????? ????? ? ???? ???????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ???????? ????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ??? ???????? ????? ???? ??????, ????? ???? ??????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ?????????? ???? ????????? ??????? ?????, ?? ????????????? ???????? ????? ? ???? ??????????? ?????? ??? ??? ???????? ???? ????? (host) ???????? ????????? ??????? ? ?????? ????????? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ??????? ????????? (segments) ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??? ???????? ? ???? ???? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ? ???? ????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ???? ??? ?????? ?????????? ?? ? ?????? ???? ?????????? ????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ?? ? ???? ?????? ???????? ???? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ????? ? ??????? ???? ??????? ????????????? ????? ????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ????? ? ?? ???? ???????? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ? ??????? ???? ??????????? ???????????? ????? (reassortant virus) ?????? ?

??????????? ? ???????????? (????) :

?? ??? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ???? ????????? ??????? ???? ???????, ?? ??????????? ???? ???? ?????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ? ?????? ??????? ???? ?????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ? ????? ?? ??? ???? ???????????? ????? (human influenza virus) ? ??? ???????????? ????? (bird influenza virus) ?? ????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ???????? ???????? ?? ??? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ???????? ???? ?????? ?


?????????????? ?????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????? ???? ? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ? ???????? ?? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ? ?? ??? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ???? ????????? ??????? ???? ???????, ?? ??????????? ???? ???? ?????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ? ?????? ??????? ???? ?????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ? ????? ?? ??? ???? ???????????? ????? (human influenza virus) ? ??? ???????????? ????? (bird influenza virus) ?? ????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ???????? ???????? ?? ??? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ???????? ???? ?????? ? ?, ???? ???? ???????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????? ????????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ? ????? ???????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ????? ????? ? ??? ???? ?? ????????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????????? (H1N1) ?????? ?? ???????? ???? ???????????? ????????? ? (??????????? www.khanacademy.org)

?. ??????? ???????????(random mutation) :

??????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?????? (??????? ????? ?? ?????) ?? ?????? ???????? ???? ?? ? ??????? ? ??????? ????????? ?????? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ????? ? ??????? ??? ????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??? ????? ??? ???? ????????? ????? ??? ????? ???? ? ?????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ????? ??????? ? ?? ???? ???? ???????? ??? ? ????????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??????? ??????? ? ????? ????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ????? ????? ??????? ????? ?


????? ????? ????? ????? ?? ? ?????????????? ??? ???? ?? ????????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ?? ??????? ?????–?? ??????? ????? ???–? ???????? ???? ?????? ??? ? ??, ?? ????? ??? ??????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ????? ?? ????????? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ? ????? ??? ??? ?????? ???????? ???? ???, ?? ??? ???????? ?????? ??????? ????? ???? ?


??????? ?, ????? ????? ????? ????? ?? ? ?????????????? ??? ???? ?? ????????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ?? ??????? ?????–?? ??????? ????? ???–? ???????? ???? ?????? ??? ? ??, ?? ????? ??? ??????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ????? ?? ????????? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ? ????? ??? ??? ?????? ???????? ???? ???, ?? ??? ???????? ?????? ??????? ????? ???? ? ????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ????? ?? ??? ? ????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ????? ??? ? ??, ?????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ????? ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ?? ?????? ? ??? ?? ????? ???? ? ???? ??????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ????? ?? ? ?? ????????? ???? ?? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ? ????????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ?? ?

Homepage photo source: http://www.thailandmedical.news

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